Outbreak of Salmonella Kottbus in Alfalfa Sprouts Alfalfa Sprouts Arizona, California, Colorado, and NewMexico, February-April 2001 February 6, 2002 Journal of the American Medical Association MMWR. 2002;51:7-9 On March 12, 2001, the CaliforniaDepartment of Health Services (CDHS) identified a cluster of SalmonellaKottbus isolates with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)patterns. During February 1--May 1, CDHS identified 23 patients with S.Kottbus infections in several California counties and an additional patient fromArizona. This report summarizes the results of the investigation of thisoutbreak, which identified cases in four states and implicated alfalfa sproutsproduced at a single facility. The median age ofcase-patients was 36 years (range: 9--72 years); 16 patients (67%) were female.Twenty-one patients developed an acute diarrheal illness, and three patients hadurinary tract infections. Three patients were hospitalized. Using a standardizedquestionnaire, a matched case-control study was conducted. A case was defined asculture-confirmed S. Kottbus infection with onset after January 2001 in aCalifornia resident with an isolate having the outbreak PFGE pattern. The first10 reported California patients were matched with two controls by age group,sex, and city prefix
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Influence of temperature and ontogeny on the levels of glucosinolates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea Var. italica) sprouts and their effect on the induction of mammalian phase 2 enzymes. J Agric Food Chem 2002 Oct 9;50(21):6239-44 Pereira FM, Rosa E, Fahey JW, Stephenson KK, Carvalho R, Aires A. Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Engineering, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real, Portugal. Broccoli inflorescences have been recognized as components of healthy diets on the basis of their high content of fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, and glucosinolates/isothiocyanates. Broccoli sprouts have been recently shown to have high levels of glucoraphanin (4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate), the precursor of the chemoprotective isothiocyanate, sulforaphane. This study evaluated the effects of temperature and developmental stage on the glucosinolate content of broccoli sprouts. Seedlings cultivated using a 30/15 degrees C (day/night) temperature regime had significantly higher glucosinolate levels (measured at six consecutive days postemergence) than did sprouts cultivated at lower temperatures (22/15 and 18/12 degrees C; p < 0.001). Both higher (33.1 degrees C) and
Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activity of 8 Varieties of Radish Phytochemical composition and biological activity of 8 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprouts and mature taproots. J Food Sci. 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):C185-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01972.x. Hanlon PR, Barnes DM. Dept. of Research and Development, Standard Process, 1200 West Royal Lee Dr., Palmyra, WI 53156, USA. Abstract Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between
Alfalfa Seed Decontamination in a Salmonella Outbreak Alfalfa Seed Decontamination in a Salmonella Outbreak CDC, Emerging Infectious Diseases, April 2003, Vol 9, No.4.Christopher J. Gill,*† William E. Keene,* Janet C. Mohle-Boetani,‡ Jeff A. Farrar,§ Patti L. Waller,¶ Christine G. Hahn,# and Paul R. Cieslak* *Oregon Department of Human Services, Portland, Oregon, USA; †Tufts University-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; ‡California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California, USA; §California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California, USA; ¶Washington State Department of Health, Shoreline, Washington, USA; and #Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Boise, Idaho, USA Suggested citation for this article: Gill CJ, Keene WE, Mohle-Boetani JE, Farrar JA, Waller PL, Hahn CG, et al. Alfalfa seed decontamination in Salmonella outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Apr [date cited];8. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no4/02-0519.htm Based on in vitro data, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends chemical disinfection of raw sprout seeds to reduce enteric pathogens contaminating the seed coats. However, little is known about the effectiveness of decontamination at preventing human disease. In 1999, an outbreak
Phase 1 Study of Multiple Biomarkers for Metabolism and Oxidative Stress After One Phase 1 study of multiple biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts. M Murashima, S Watanabe, XG Zhuo, M Uehara, and A Kurashige Biofactors, January 1, 2004; 22(1-4): 271-5. The Department of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1, Sakuragaoka Setagaya, Tokyo, 156-8502, Japan. Little is known about the direct effect of broccolisprouts on human health. So we investigated the effect of broccoli sprouts on the induction of various biochemical oxidative stress markers. Twelve healthy subjects (6 males and 6 females) consumed fresh broccoli sprouts (100 g/day) for 1 week for a phase 1 study. Before and after the treatment, biochemical examination was conducted and natural killer cell activity, plasma amino acids, plasma PCOOH (phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide), the serum coenzyme Q(10), urinary 8-isoprostane, and urinary 8-OHdG (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) were measured. With treatment, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased, and HDL cholesterol increased significantly. Plasma cystine decreased significantly. All subjects showed reduced PCOOH, 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG, and increased CoQ(10)H(2)/CoQ(10) ratio. Only one week intake
Japan Prepares As O157 Strikes Again Japan prepares as O157 strikes again Ed Gutierrez, April 19, 1997 - From the Lancet News Japanese health officials are preparing to prevent an outbreak of O157 Escherichia coli on a scale similar to last year's. 126 people have been infected, of whom one has died. The death late last month startled public-health officials into disseminating food-preparation guidelines for small and medium sized outlets. Similar guidelines for larger institutions that serve food were distributed after last year's epidemic, which infected 9451 people and left 12 dead. The main outbreak then was in elementary schools in Sakai City, Osaka; the source was believed to be radish sprouts. A national association of radish growers and the owners of [the farm] which has been described as the originator of the infection, have filed compensation suits against the government
Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 913 Gastroenteritis Associated with Mung Bean Sprouts Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 913 Gastroenteritis Associated with Mung Bean Sprouts - Edmonton, 2001 Canada Communicable Disease Report Volume 27-18 15 September 2001 Introduction During February and March 2001, 84 cases of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 913 (SE PT 913) were reported in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Of these, 73 (87%) resided in the Capital Health region (greater Edmonton, Alberta) at the time of diagnosis. The ensuing outbreak investigation conducted by Capital Health-Environmental Health, summarized below, epidemiologically linked consumption of mung bean sprouts distributed in the Edmonton area with onset of SE PT 913 infection. Methods Case Series Data Laboratory confirmation ofS. enteritidis cases was provided by the Provincial Laboratory of Northern Alberta (PLNA), and phage typing of these cases was conducted by the National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Cases of SE PT 913 captured through notifiable disease surveillance in the Capital Health region were contacted by telephone and administered a
Bioavailability and Kinetics of Sulforaphane in Humans After Consumption of Cooked Versus Raw Broccoli Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Nov 26;56(22):10505-9. Vermeulen M, Klöpping-Ketelaars IW, van den Berg R, Vaes WH. TNO Quality of Life, AJ Zeist, The Netherlands. The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability and kinetics of the supposed anticarcinogen sulforaphane, the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, from raw and cooked broccoli. Eight men consumed 200 g of crushed broccoli, raw or cooked, with a warm meal in a randomized, free-living, open cross-over trial. Higher amounts of sulforaphane were found in the blood and urine when broccoli was eaten raw (bioavailability of 37%) versus cooked (3.4%, p ) 0.002). Absorption of sulforaphane was delayed when cooked broccoli was consumed (peak plasma time ) 6 h) versus raw broccoli (1.6 h, p ) 0.001). Excretion half-lives were comparable, 2.6 and 2.4 h on average, for raw and cooked broccoli, respectively (p ) 0.5). This
Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis Patients by Long Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis Patients by Long-Term Administration of Germinated Barley Foodstuff: Multi-Center Open Trial. Int J Mol Med. 2003 Nov;12(5):701-4. Kanauchi O, Mitsuyama K, Homma T, Takahama K, Fujiyama Y, Andoh A, Araki Y, Suga T, Hibi T, Naganuma M, Asakura H, Nakano H, Shimoyama T, Hida N, Haruma K, Koga H, Sata M, Tomiyasu N, Toyonaga A, Fukuda M, Kojima A, Bamba T. Nutrient Food & Feed Division, Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., Tokyo 104-8288, Japan. email@example.com Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF), which mainly consists of dietary fiber and glutamine-rich protein, is a prebiotic for ulcerative colitis (UC). In our previous study, we carried out a clinical trial of GBF with mildly to moderately active UC patients and showed that GBF treatment was able to attenuate the symptoms of UC in a relatively short-term. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of long-term administration of GBF in the treatment of UC in a multi-center open trial. Twenty-one patients with mildly
An Anthocyanin Compound in Buckwheat Sprouts and Its Contribution to Antioxidant Capacity An anthocyanin compound in buckwheat sprouts and its contribution to antioxidant capacity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Feb;71(2):579-82. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Watanabe M. National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Morioka, Irwate, Japan. The major anthocyanin compound in buckwheat sprouts was determined to be cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (C3R), based on HPLC data and MS/MS spectra. Investigation of the content of phenolic compounds in commercial buckwheat sprouts indicated that hypocotyls are abundant in C3R and rutin, whereas all of the detected flavonoids are abundant in cotyledons. The superoxide anion radical-scavenging activities (SOD-like activities) of phenolic compounds in buckwheat sprouts and their contents indicated that rutin, isoorientin, and orientin contributed mainly to the SOD-like activity of the extract from buckwheat sprouts. In contrast, the contribution of C3R was substantially lower than that of flavonoids.