Efficacy of Ozonated Water Against Various Food
Efficacy of ozonated water against various food-related
Restaino L; Frampton EW; Hemphill JB; Palnikar P
R & F Laboratories, Inc., Bridgeview, Illinois 60455, USA.
Appl Environ Microbiol, 61: 9, 1995 Sep, 3471-5
The antimicrobial effects of ozonated water in a recirculating concurrent reactor were evaluated against four gram-positive and four gram-negative bacteria, two yeasts, and spores of Aspergillus niger. More than 5 log units each of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli cells were killed instantaneously in ozonated water with or without addition of 20 ppm of soluble starch (SS). In ozonated water, death rates among the gram-negative bacteria–S. typhimurium, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Yersinia enterocolitica–were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Among gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes was significantly P < 0.05) more sensitive than either Staphylococcus aureus or Enterococcus faecalis. In the presence of organic material, death rates of S. aureus compared with L. monocytogenes and E. coli compared with S. typhimurium in ozonated water were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by SS addition but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by addition of 20 ppm of bovine serum albumin (BSA). More than 4.5 log units each of Candida albicans and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells were killed instantaneously in ozonated water, whereas less than 1 log unit of Aspergillus niger spores was killed after a 5-min exposure. The average ozone output levels in the deionized water (0.188 mg/ml) or water with SS (0.198 mg/ml) did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) but were significantly lower in water containing BSA (0.149 mg/ml).