Epidemiology Sprout Safety Research

Interested in epidemiology and sprouts? We have assembled important epidemiology sprout safety research articles on this page.

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“2003 Outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157 Infections Associated with Consumption of Alfalfa Sprouts produced in Minneapolis”  Kevin Elfering, Program Director, Dairy, Food and Meat Inspection Division, Minnesota Department of Agriculture.

“A health food fights back: An international outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections due to alfalfa sprouts” Abstract K47, 36th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Sept 15-18, 1996, p. 259. Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology. Van Beneden CA, Keene WE, Werker DH, King AS, Cieslak PR, Hedberg K, Strang RA, Bell A, Fleming D (1996).

“A Multi-County and Multi-State Outbreak of Salmonella Enteriditis (group D) Among Oriental Restaurant and Market Patrons” Bill L. Toth, MPH, Donna Walsh, RN, BSN, Zuber Mulla, PhD, MSPH, Dean Bodager, RS, MPA, Roberta Hammond, PhD.

“A multi-state outbreak of Salmonella serotypes Infantitis and Anatum – Kansas and Missouri, 1997”. Kansas Medicine. 98(3): 10-12.Pezzino, G., C. Miller, R. Flahart, and S.R. Potsic. 1998.

“A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections linked to alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds.”, Emerg Infect Dis 2001 Nov-Dec;7(6):977-82, Breuer T, Benkel DH, Shapiro RL, Hall WN, Winnett MM, Linn MJ, Neimann J, Barrett TJ, Dietrich S, Downes FP, Toney DM, Pearson JL, Rolka H, Slutsker L, Griffin PM; Investigation Team., Centers for Disease Control And Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

“A national outbreak of Salmonella Gold-Coast.” Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Rev. 4:3-4. Joce, R., D. G. O’Sullivan, C. Strong, B. Rowe, M. L. M. Hall, and E. J. Threlfall. 1990.

“A Nationwide Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans Associated with Sprouted Alfalfa Seeds in Finland, 2009.”

Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 May 12. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2011.01408.x. Rimhanen-Finne R,Niskanen T,Lienemann T,Johansson T,Sjöman M,Korhonen T,Guedes S,Kuronen H,Virtanen MJ,Mäkinen J,Jokinen J,Siitonen A,Kuusi M.,National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland  Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland  European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden  Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Kuopio, Finland  Environmental Health Centre, Lieto, Finland.

“A Statewide Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Virginia, 1997”  Virginia Epidemiology Bulletin, April 1998 Volume 98, Number 4, Randolph L. Gordon, M.D., M.P.H., Commissioner, Suzanne R. Jenkins, V.M.D., M.P.H., Acting State Epidemiologist, Elizabeth Barrett, D.M.D., M.S.P.H., Editor, Vickie L. O’Dell, Layout Editor.

“A Summary of Background Information and Foodborne Illness Associated with the Consumption of Sprouts,” Peter Feng, US Food and Drug Administration, 08/06/1997.

“A summary of reported foodborne disease incidents in Sweden, 1992 to 1997”Lindqvist R, Andersson Y, de Jong B, Norberg P., National Food Administration, Uppsala, Sweden.

“A Survey of Sprout Growers in California” Technical Abstracts T33,  JENNIFER THOMAS, Mary Palumbo, Dean Cliver, Jeff Farrar, and Thomas Farver, California Dept. of Health Services, Food and Drug Branch, Emergency Response Unit, 601 N. 7th St. MS#357, Sacramento, CA 94234, USA.

“Again an outbreak originating from sprouts” EpidAktuellt 1994; 17: 10 Andersson Y, de Jong B. (in Swedish).

“Alfalfa Seed Decontamination in a Salmonella Outbreak”, CDC, Emerging Infectious Diseases, April 2003, Vol 9, No.4, Christopher J. Gill, William E. Keene, Janet C. Mohle-Boetani, Jeff A. Farrar, Patti L. Waller, Christine G. Hahn, and Paul R. Cieslak.

“Alfalfa Sprout Seeds Seen as Source of Salmonella Outbreaks”:Current Sprouting Methods Inadequate to Prevent Such Events, JAMA. Journal of the American Medical Association), 281(2), 13 January. JAMA. 1999a. Chris A. Van Beneden, M.D., M.P.H.

“Alfalfa Sprouts and Salmonella Kottbus Infection:  A Multistate Outbreak Following Inadequate Seed Disinfection with Heat and Chlorine”, January 2003, Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 13­17, K. L. Winthrop,a, c M. S. Palumbo,b J. A. Farrar,b J. C. Mohle-Bohle-Boetani,a S. Abbott,a M. E. Beatty,c, d G. Inami,a and S. B. Wernera.

“Alfalfa Sprouts Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico, February-April 2001”, February 6, 2002, Journal of the American Medical Association, MMWR. 2002;51:7-9.

“An epidemiological consideration on the recent outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli(EHEC) infection in Japan”. Japan International Cultural Exchange Foundation, Mitsuhiro Kamakura.

“An International Outbreak of Salmonella Infections Caused by Alfalfa Sprouts Grown from Contaminated Seeds”, J Infect Dis 1997 Apr;175(4):876-82, Mahon BE, Ponka A, Hall WN, Komatsu K, Dietrich SE, Siitonen A, Cage G, Hayes PS, Lambert-Fair MA, Bean NH, Griffin PM, Slutsker L.

“An outbreak of Bacillus cereus food poisoning resulting from contaminated vegetable sprouts” Am J Epidemiol 1976 Jun;103(6):589-94, Portnoy BL, Goepfert JM, Harmon SM.

“An Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:Nonmotile Associated with Alfalfa Sprouts – Colorado, July 2003” DD Ferguson, MD, A Cronquist, MPH, J Scheftel, DVM, MPH, A Woo-Ming, K Gershman, MD, MPH, J Knutsen, AK De, PhD.

An outbreak of human salmonellosis in Denmark caused by alfalfa sprouts.  In: Salmonella and Salmonellosis (Proceedings), 587-589, Ploufragan, France, May 1997. Wegener, H.C., et al.  1997.

“An outbreak of Salmonella saint-paul infection associated with beansprouts.”, Epidemiol Infect 1990 Apr;104(2):229-35, O’Mahony M, Cowden J, Smyth B, Lynch D, Hall M, Rowe B, Teare EL, Tettmar RE, Rampling AM, Coles M, et al., PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London.

“An Outbreak of Salmonella serotypes Anatum and Infantis Infections Associated with Eating Contaminated Sprouts”, Glynn MK, Patrick S, Wuhib T, Neiman J, Flahart R, Boxrund D, et al.  36th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), November 1998, Denver, Colorado. Abstract no. 539.

An Outbreak of Salmonellosis Associated with Eating Alfalfa Sprouts, Lexington, Virginia”, Elizabeth Barrett, D.M.D., M.S.P.H, Cindy Chaos M.P .H., October 16, 1996.

“Annual listings, US Foodborne Disease Outbreaks” Foodborne Outbreak Response and Surveillance Unit, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A.

“Australia Salmonella Outbreak” February, 2006.

“Bacillus cereus contamination of seeds and vegetable sprouts grown in a home sprouting kit.”, J Food Protection 1987;50:62-5. Harmon SM, Kautter DA, Soloman HM.

“Canadian Integrated Surveillance Report Salmonella Campylobacter pathogenic E. coli and Shigella from 1996 to 1999”, Canada Communicable Disease Report, Health Canada, March 2003 Volume : 29S1 CCDR 2003;29S1

“Canada Investigation” Note from SproutNet ,October 5, 1999.

“Canadian Bean Sprout Outbreak”, December, 2005

“Clinical experiences in Sakai City Hospital during the massive outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infections in Sakai City, 1996”, Pediatr Int 1999 Apr;41(2):213-7, Fukushima H, Hashizume T, Morita Y, Tanaka J, Azuma K, Mizumoto Y, Kaneno M, Matsuura M, Konma K, Kitani T.

Correspondence with Anja Siitonen, KTL, Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

“Demographic Factors Associated with the Consumption of Sprouts Among California Women” J. C. Mohle-Boetani, S. B. Werner, D. J. Vugia.

“Detection and isolation of Salmonella from naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds following an outbreak investigation.” J Food Prot. 1999 Jun;62(6):662-4. Inami GB, Moler SE. California Department of Health Services, Microbial Diseases Laboratory, Berkeley 94704, USA.

“Dover Sales Company, Inc. Recalls Crimson Clover Seeds” Safety Alerts, June 4, 1999 Recall, August 25, 1999, Piedmont, OK.

“E. coli, Alfalfa Sprouts – USA (Virginia)” August 8, 1997, ProMED.

“E. coli O157:H7 Infections Associated with Alfalfa Sprouts January (2003) ~ Hennepin and Ramsey Counties” Minnesota Department of Health 2003 Gastroenteritis Outbreak Summary.

“E. coli 0157 NM Summary”  Georgia Department of Human Resources, Division of Public Health, Stuart T. Brown, M.D., Director.

“Enhancing Foodborne Disease Surveillance Across Australia Quarterly Report July – September 2003 (excerpt)” OzFoodNet, Western Australia December 2003,  Minda Sarna.

“Environmental Investigation of an E. Coli 0157:H7 Outbreak Associated with the Consumption of Alfalfa Sprouts” Final Narrative Report August, 2002 – October, 2002, California Department of Health Services, Food and Drug Branch. (This is a protected document available only through the US Freedom of Information Act).

“Enterohaemorrahgic E. coli infection – Japan” FSNET.  August 11, 1996.  By MARI YAMAGUCHI Associated Press Writer.

“Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Japan – 1996 – Update” World Health Organization, Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR), 28 August 1996 , Disease Outbreak Reported.

“Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Infection” Public Health Agency of Canada, Canada Communicable Disease Report, Volume 23-17
September 1, 1997.

“Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection” Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 35, 30 AUGUST, World Health Organization, Geneva1996, 71, 261-268

“Escherichia coli 0157 Infection and Hemolytic Uremit Syndrome (HUS), 2003”Minnesota Department of Health, Disease Control Newsletter.

“Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella Infections Associated with Sprouts in California, 1996-1998”,Janet C. Mohle-Boetani, MD, MPH; Jeff A. Farrar, DVM, PhD; S. Benson Werner, MD, MPH; Dzovag Minassian, MPH; Ray Bryant; Sharon Abbott; Laurence Slutsker, MD, MPH; Duc J. Vugia, MD, MPH, for the Investigation Team.

“Examples of Reported Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease Associated with Seed Sprouts” Chapter IV Outbreaks Associated with Fresh Produce: Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce in Analysis and Evaluation of Preventive Control Measures for the Control and Reduction/Elimination of Microbial Hazards on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce, Outbreaks Tables, Table O-4: U. S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition,  September 30, 2001.

“Factory outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Japan.”, Emerg Infect Dis 1999 May-Jun;5(3):424-8, Watanabe Y, Ozasa K, Mermin JH, Griffin PM, Masuda K, Imashuku S, Sawada T., Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

“FDA Alerts Sprout Growers and Retailers About Specific Lots of Alfalfa Seed Potentially Contaminated with Salmonella”, United States Food and  Drug Administration, May 1, 2009.

“Finland Mung Bean Sprout Outbreak of Salmonella Abony”  (listing only)

“Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce” J Food Prot. 2001 Nov;64(11):1863-77. Sewell AM, Farber JM. Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Ottawa, Ontario.

“Fourth sprout-borne Salmonella outbreak in Finland during the 90’s” Food Associated Pathogens, Uppsala, Swede, May 6-8, 1996. Proceedings of the Symposium Food Associated Pathogens, SLU Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden 1996:166-167.Puohiniemi R, Heiskanen T, Siitonen A.

“Fresh and processed vegetables” Nguyen-the C, Carlin F. 2000. In: Lund BM, Baird-Parker TC, Gould GW, editors. The microbiological safety and quality of food. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen. p 620-84.

“German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with sprouts” N Engl J Med. 2011 Nov 10;365(19):1763-70. Epub 2011 Oct 26. Buchholz U, Bernard H, Werber D, Böhmer MM, Remschmidt C, Wilking H, Deleré Y, an der Heiden M, Adlhoch C, Dreesman J, Ehlers J, Ethelberg S, Faber M, Frank C, Fricke G, Greiner M, Höhle M, Ivarsson S, Jark U, Kirchner M, Koch J, Krause G, Luber P, Rosner B, Stark K, Kühne M. Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

“Gov’t to Appeal Ruling Over Damages for Sprout Growers” May 29, 2003, AP

“Growth of Salmonella Newport on naturally contaminated alfalfa sprouts and estimation of infectious dose in a Danish Salmonella newport outbreak due to alfalfa sprouts” Aabo, S. and D.L. Baggesen. 1997. Salmonella and Salmonellosis, 425-426.

“Growth of Salmonella Newport in Naturally contaminated alfalfa sprouts and estimation of infectious dose in a Danish Salmonella Newport outbreak due to alfalfa sprouts”  In: Salmonella and Salmonellosis (Proceedings), 587-589, Ploufragan, France, May 1997.Aabo, S. and Baggesen, D.L.

“Health Hazard Alert – Alfalfa Sprouts and Sprout Mixes Containing Alfalfa Sprouts May Contain Salmonella Bacteria” Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, November, 1997.

“Health Hazard Alert – Alfalfa Sprouts May Contain Salmonella Bacteria”  FSnet, Sept. 29, 1999

“Health Hazard Alert – Mung bean sprouts Manufactured by Toronto Sun Wah Trading May Contain Salmonella Bacteria” Canada Health Department, OTTAWA, November 24, 2005 and December 24, 2005.

“Health Officials Issue Alfalfa Sprouts Advisory” Tulsa City-County Health Department. Tulsa, Oklahoma, August 26, 2005.

“High Incidence of Extra-Intestinal Infections in a Salmonella Havana Outbreak Associated with Alfalfa Sprouts”, Public Health Rep 2000 Jul-Aug;115(4):339-45, Backer HD, Mohle-Boetani JC, Werner SB, Abbott SL, Farrar J, Vugia DJ., Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

“Infections Associated with Eating Seed Sprouts: An International Concern”, Emerging Infectious Disease, Volume 5, No. 5, Sep-Oct, 1999, Peter J. Taormina,* Larry R. Beuchat,* and Laurence Slutsker†,*University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia, USA; and †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

“Industry practices and compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines among California sprout firms”, J Food Prot. 2003 Jul;66(7):1253-9. Thomas JL, Palumbo MS, Farrar JA, Farver TB, Cliver DO. California Department of Health Services, Food and Drug Branch, 601 North 7th Street, Sacramento, California 94234, USA.

“International outbreak of Salmonella newport associated with alfalfa sprouts” BC Health and Disease Surveillance 1996;5(5):40-46. B.C. Centre for Disease Control.

“Investigation of pathogenic bacteria in sprouted seed products”,  De Ware(n)-Chemicus, Speek AJ. 2000;30:151-8. [in Dutch].

Japan prepares as O157 strikes again“.1997. Lancet.  349:1156.  Gutierrez, E.

“Lawsuit Filed in Salmonella Sprout Case” Marler Clark Website.

“Massive Outbreak of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection in School Children in Sakai City, Japan, Associated with Consumption of White Radish Sprouts”, Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:787-96. Michino H, Araki K, Minami S, Takaya S, Sakai N, Miyazaki M, Ono A, Yanagawa H., Environmental Health Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan.

“Microbiological hazards associated with sprouted seeds” Food Safety and Hygiene – A bulletin for the Australian food industry, March 2005.

“Microbiological safety and quality of sprouts in Western Australia ~ Survey, Summer 2002” ANZ Food Surveillance Newsletter, Health Department, Western Australia

“Microbiological Safety Evaluations and Recommendations on Sprouted Seeds” U. S. Food and Drug Administration, National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Food, Adopted May 28, 1999

“Microbiology of retail mung bean sprouts vended in public markets of National Capital Region, Philippines” FOOD CONTROL, v.18(10):1307-1313, 2007. Gabriel, A.A.; Berja, M.C.; Estrada, A.M.P.; Lopez, M.G.A.A.; Nery, J.G.B.; Villaflor, E.J.B.

“Molecular Epidemiology of Two International Sprout-Borne Salmonella Outbreaks”, J Clin Microbiol 1997 Oct;35(10):2487-91, Puohiniemi R, Heiskanen T, Siitonen A., Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

“More outbreaks from sprouts” Calgary Health Region, Public Health Update, July\August 2000

“Multinational Outbreak of Salmonella Enterica Serotype Newport Infections Due to Contaminated Alfalfa Sprouts”, JAMA 1999 Jan 13;281(2):158-62, Van Beneden CA, Keene WE, Strang RA, Werker DH, King AS, Mahon B, Hedberg K, Bell A, Kelly MT, Balan VK, Mac Kenzie WR, Fleming D., Acute and Communicable Disease Program, Oregon Health Division, Portland 97212, USA.

“Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Serovar Muenchen Infections Associated with Alfalfa Sprouts Grown from Seeds Pretreated with Calcium Hypochlorite”, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, October 2001, p. 3461-3465, Vol. 39, No. 10, Mary E. Proctor, Marge Hamacher, Mary Lou Tortorello, John R. Archer, and Jeffrey P. Davis.

“Nationwide Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans Associated with Sprouted Alfalfa Seeds in Finland, 2009” Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 May 12. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2011.01408.x. Rimhanen-Finne R, Niskanen T, Lienemann T, Johansson T, Sjöman M, Korhonen T, Guedes S, Kuronen H, Virtanen MJ, Mäkinen J, Jokinen J, Siitonen A, Kuusi M. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland  Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland  European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden  Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Kuopio, Finland  Environmental Health Centre, Lieto, Finland.

“Occurrence of Salmonellae in Bean Sprouts in Thailand.”, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1993 Mar;24(1):114-8, Jerngklinchan J, Saitanu K.

“Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:NM Associated Alfalfa Sprout Consumption Colorado, 2003” Dayna Ferguson, MD, CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, CDPHE

“Outbreak of Gastrointestinal Disease Linked to Clover Sprouts Grown from Chlorine-Pretreated Seeds”  John T Brooks, Pam Shillam, Samantha Yang, Elizabeth Hannah, David Heltzel, Kelly Kamm, Lawrence Slutsker, and Stephen Luby, CDC.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans And Multi-State Alfalfa Sprout Recalls”Recall Notices and Newspaper Articles about the outbreak.  2004

“Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 11B in the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, June 2000”, July 15, 2003, CCDR Volume 29-14, Harb J, Isaacs S, Fyfe M, Crowe L, Slater B, Ahmed R, Rodgers F, Anderson C, Hockin J., Field Epidemiology Training Program (Heath Canada), Vancouver, British Columbia.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 913 Gastroenteritis Associated with Mung Bean Sprouts – Edmonton, 2001”, Canada Communicable Disease Report, Volume 27-18, 15 September 2001.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 913  Maine – January 2002” The EpiGram March 2002, Maine Bureau of Health’s Division of Disease Control.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 13 Associated with Mung Bean Sprouts in Ontario, 2005”, Outbreak Investigation, May 17, 2006, Rafiq Ahmed, Maureen Anderson, Dr. Andrea Ellis, Manon Fleury, Lisa Landry, Diane MacDonald, Jiangping Shuai, Dr. Sharon Calvin, Anne Maki, Dr. Dean Middleton, Linda Vrbova, Jim Chan, Abimbola Forde, Gerald Lawrence, Joanne Dow, Cathy Egan, Alison Locker, Dr. Bryna Warshawsky, Peter Moccio, Jerry Zalewski.

Outbreak of S. Enteritidis PT4B Infection in the Netherlands” December 20, 2000, Eurosurveillance Weekly.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Paratyphi B var Java Due to Contaminated Alfalfa Sprouts in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan”, August 15, 2001, Health Canada; Canada Communicable Disease Report Vol. 27-16.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Saintpaul Infections Associated with Eating Alfalfa Sprouts – United States, 2009” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 58 / May 7, 2009.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Kottbus Infections Associated with Eating Alfalfa Sprouts — Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico, February–April 2001”,  Centers For Disease Control, Morbibity and Mortality Weekly  Report,  January 11, 2001.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Saintpaul Infections Associated with Eating Alfalfa Sprouts – United States, 2009”  Centers for Disease Control Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Vol. 58, May 7, 2009.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Stanley in Sweden associated with alfalfa sprouts, July-August 2007” Euro Surveill. 2007 Oct 18;12(10):E071018.2.Werner S, Boman K, Einemo I, Erntell M, de Jong B, Lindqvist A, Lofdahl M, Lofdahl S, Meeuwisse A, Ohlen G, Olsson M, Stamer U, Sellstrom E, Andersson Y. Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI), Stockholm, Sweden.

“Outbreak of Salmonella Weltevreden infections in Norway, Denmark and Finland associated with alfalfa sprouts, July-October 2007” KE Emberland, S Ethelberg, M Kuusi, L Vold, L Jensvoll, B-A Lindstedt, K Nygård, C Kjelsø, M Torpdahl, G Sørensen, T Jensen, S Lukinmaa, T Niskanen, G Kapperud.

“Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection Associated with Eating Alfalfa Sprouts-Michigan and Virginia”, June-July, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46:741-4.

“Outbreaks of Salmonella and E. coli O157 infections from Sprouts – US 1995-99”.  In: Sprout Summit: Best practices & recommendations for the production of safer sprouts from seeds.  November 15-16, 1999.  Chicago, Illinois., Johnson, K.  1999.

“Outbreaks Tied To FDA Regulated Foods” Outbreak Alert Listing 2004, Center for Science in the Public Interest.

“OzFoodNet: quarterly report, 1 January to 31 March 2006” Australian Government Department of Health and Aging, Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 30, Number 2, June 2006.

“Pinetree Garden Seeds Recalls ‘Sprouting Clover Seeds’ – Possible Salmonella”SafetyAlerts, June 15, 1999

“Product recalls and alerts” RSSL Food e-News, Edition 205: 06 – 13 October 2004.

“Rainbow Sprouts Recalls Clover and Mixed Sprouts” May 28, 1999 Recall. Safety Alerts August 25, 1999 Grand Junction, CO

“Reactive arthritis following an outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans infection” J Infect. 1998 May;36(3):289-95. Mattila L, Leirisalo-Repo M, Pelkonen P, Koskimies S, Granfors K, Siitonen A. Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

“Recalls and Field Corrections: Foods – Class II Enforcement Report” FDA, July 24, 1996

“Recalls and Field Correction: Food – Class I Enforcement Report” FDA, October 29, 1997

“Recalls and Field Corrections: Foods – Class II Enforcement Report”  FDA, November 5, 1997

“Recalls and Field Corrections: Foods – Class I Enforcement Report” November 25, 1998.

“Recalls and Field Corrections – S. saintpaul and S. chester” US FDA, March 15, 2003 and November 26, 2003

“Recall Update: Hien Van Tran Raw Mung Bean Sprouts Recall Complete”SafetyAlerts, FDA September 27, 2002.

“Reportable Infectious Diseases in Maine – 2002 Summary” Maine Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Health, Division of Disease Control. Augusta, Maine.

“Resolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 that contaminated radish sprouts in two outbreaks by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.”, Curr Microbiol 2001 Nov;43(5):311-5, Yokoyama K, Iinuma Y, Kawano Y, Nakano M, Kawagishi M, Yamashino T, Hasegawa T, Ohta M., Department of Molecular Bacteriology, Nagoya University Postgraduate School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.

“Salmonella . . . Just another Gastric Monstrosity!” Bureau of Epidemiology, Utah Department of Health, July 1999

“Salmonella and E.coli Infections: International” August 20, 1999

“Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Phage Type 4b Outbreak Associated with Bean Sprouts”,  CDC, Emerging Infectious Diseases, April 2002, Volume 8, No. 4. Yvonne T.H.P. van Duynhoven, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Carolien M. de Jager, Teresa Fernandes, Sabine Neppelenbroek, Winette van den Brandhof, Wim J.B. Wannet, Jan A. van Kooij, Henk J.M. Rietveld, and Wilfrid van Pelt.

“Salmonella enteritidis: California” Infectious Diseases News Brief, April 28 2000, Health Canada – Population and Public Health Branch (formerly LCDC). 2000.

“Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection outbreak in Sacramento and Placer counties, March/April, 2000” State of California, Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California, 2000, Mohle-Boetani J. CA EPI 00-09. (Protected document available through the US Freedom of Information Act.)

“Salmonella in alfalfa sprouts” [letter].  Ponka A,  Andersson Y,  Siitonen A,  et al.  Lancet. 1995 Feb 18;345(8947):462-3.

“Salmonella infections associated with mung bean sprouts: epidemiological and environmental investigations” Epidemiol Infect. 2008 Feb 25;:1-10. Mohle-Boetani JC, Farrar J, Bradley P, Barak JD, Miller M, Mandrell R, Mead P, Keene WE, Cummings K, Abbott S, Werner SB; for the Investigation Team.

Salmonella Mbandaka – WA, OR, and Idaho – 1999 Alfalfa Sprout Outbreak”  Four Articles

“Salmonella Newport, Denmark, 1995” Personal correspondence with sprout grower involved.

“Salmonella Outbreak Tied To Sprouts From Dixon” San Francisco, Sabin Russell, Chronicle Staff Writer, Saturday, June 19, 1999

“Salmonella serotype Enteritidis Outbreaks Reported to CDC, by January 1 – December 31, 2001” CDC, 12/18/02.

“Salmonella serotype Enteritidis Outbreaks Reported to CDC, by January 1 – December 31, 2002” CDC 02/23/2003.

“Salmonella Typhimurium infections transmitted by chlorine-pretreated clover sprout seeds” Am J Epidemiol 2001 Dec 1;154(11):1020-8, Erratum in: Am J Epidemiol 2002 May 15;155(10):980, Brooks JT, Rowe SY, Shillam P, Heltzel DM, Hunter SB, Slutsker L, Hoekstra RM, Luby SP.

“Salmonellosis, mung beans – Sweden (Stockholm)(03): sprouts” 20.nov.06, ProMED Mail Post, Birgitta de Jong.

“Salmonellosis Outbreak Associated with Raw Mung Bean Sprouts” SproutNet, April 25, 2000, California Department of Health Services Press Release, April 19, 2000.

“Seed source identified for E. coli outbreaks linked to sprouts” News RX, Health & Medicine Week, Page 1052, 2005 AUG 8

“Selected Foodborne Outbreaks Traced to Fresh Produce and Juices”  Food Safety Risk Assessment, Foods of Plant Origin, Appendix A, , December 2002, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) Food Inspection Branch.

“South Australia Recall Follows Recent Outbreak in Western Australia” SproutNet, May 17, 2006.

“Sprout Grower Shut Down by Salmonella” The Calgary Herald/ Edmonton Sun/Broadcast News, February 22, 2001.

“Sprout Outbreaks, 1996 – 2004”, FDA

“Sprout Recalls – Salmonella Bovismorbificans” SproutNet, July 7, 2004.

“Sprout Related Outbreaks in Sweden” Personal Correspondence with Birgitta de Jong, Epidemiolog/Epidemiologist, Avd. för Epidemilogi/Dept. of Epidemiology, Smittskyddsinstitutet/Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Sweden.

“Sprouts Alive and Sun Sprout Brands of Sprouts May Contain Salmonella Bacteria”,Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottowa, March 14, 2002.

“Sprouts and foodborne disease” Food Safety Hygiene,  A bulletin for the Australian Food Industry, Food Science Australia, November 2000.

“Sprouts – common vehicles for salmonella outbreaks” (in Finnish). Suomen Laakarilehti 2003;35:3450-3453. Peltola J, Kanerva M, Kuusi M, Kyyhkynen A, Siitonen A.

“Sprouts Fingered as E. coli Culprit – Five summer victims linked to food grown outside the county”The Tribune, San Luis Obispo, Calif. Fri, Sep. 27, 2002.

“State Health Department Announces Recall of Alfalfa Sprouts” News Release: California Department of Health Services, April 17, 2001.

“State Traces Salmonella Outbreak to Sprouts”Kansas Department of Health & Environment, June 4, 1997.

“Sugarcane, chicken and radish sprouts: a sampling of country food safety experiences” J Adv Nurs 2002 Jun;38(5):433-4.

“Sunshine Sprouts” Clover Sprouts Recalled” West Palm Beach, FL Safety Alerts, FDA, June 7, 1999 recall, July 14, 1999.

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