Sulforaphane down-regulates COX-2 expression by activating p38 and inhibiting NF-kappaB-DNA-binding activity in human bladder T24 cells.
Int J Oncol. 2009 Apr;34(4):1129-34
Shan Y, Wu K, Wang W, Wang S, Lin N, Zhao R, Cassidy A, Bao Y.
School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over expression has been associated with the grade, prognosis and recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. In this study, sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate, down-regulated COX-2 expression in human bladder transitional cancer T24 cells at both transcriptional- and translational levels. Sulforaphane (5-20 microM) induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and reduced its binding to the COX-2 promoter, a key mechanism for suppressing COX-2 expression by sulforaphane. Moreover, sulforaphane increased expression of p38 and phosphorylated-p38 protein. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to further investigate its pivotal role in sulforaphane-mediated down-regulation of COX-2. Exposure of T24 cells to SB202190 1 hour prior to sulforaphane treatment abolished the effect of sulforaphane on COX-2 mRNA down-regulation, but enhanced COX-2 transcription. Furthermore, SB202190 alone induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus, promoted NF-kappaB binding to the COX-2 promoter and resulted in up-regulation of COX-2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that p38 is essential in sulforaphane-mediated COX-2 suppression and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of sulforaphane in the chemoprevention of bladder cancer.
Note from ISS: Several crucifer sprouts including broccoli sprouts are currently the most potent natural source of sulforaphane known. They often produce 10 to 100 times the amount of sulforaphane as their corresponding mature vegetables.