Sulforaphane Induces G2
Sulforaphane induces G2-M arrest and apoptosis in high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2009 Nov;45(11):998-1004. Epub 2009 Jul 8.
Chu WF, Wu DM, Liu W, Wu LJ, Li DZ, Xu DY, Wang XF.
Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Baojian Road 157, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, PR China.
New chemotherapeutic strategy should be investigated to enhance clinical management in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Recently, sulforaphane (SFN), as a natural compound from cruciferous vegetables exhibits a potent anti-cancer activity in various tumor cells, but remains uncertain in ACC cells. The present study examined whether SFN suppresses proliferation and in ACC cells, if so, the possible molecular targets would be further investigated. Cell survives, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and molecular targets were identified by multiple detecting techniques, including trypan blue dye exclusion assay, electron microscopy, AO/EB staining, flow cytometry and immunoblotting in human lung high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M). The results showed that 5-20 microM SFN suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of ACC-M cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated treatment of ACC-M cells with 20 microM SFN resulted in G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with a marked decline in protein levels of G(2)/M regulatory proteins including cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). In terms of apoptosis, SFN increased the expression of Bax and decreased the level of Bcl-2 and subsequently triggered release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3, but Fas level and caspase-8 activity remained unchanged at all time points. Furthermore, levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 in both of the cytoplasm and the nucleus have also been markedly suppressed by SFN in a time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest SFN inhibits cell growth via inducing G(2)/M cell arrest and apoptosis in ACC-M cells. These events have been associated with SFN-regulated multiple targets involved in ACC-M cell proliferation. The present study provides an evidence for testing SFN efficacy in vivo and warranting future investigations to exam the clinical potential of SFN in ACC chemotherapy.
Note from ISS: Several crucifer sprouts including broccoli sprouts are currently the most potent natural source of sulforaphane known. They often produce 10 to 100 times the amount of sulforaphane as their corresponding mature vegetables.
“Broccoli sprouts have a very high concentration of sulforaphane since this compound originates in the seed and is not made in the plant as it grows. One sprout contains all of the sulforaphane that is present in a full grown broccoli plant.”
“Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet” Nutr J. 2004 Oct 20;3:19, Donaldson MS. Hallelujah Acres Foundation, 13553 Vantage Hwy, Ellensburg, WA 98926, USA.