Scientists Seek Strategies to Safeguard Fresh Sprouts Scientists Seek Strategies to SafeguardFresh Sprouts July 27,2000 ARS News Service Agricultural Research Service, USDA Freshsprouts make a crisp, crunchy and healthful addition to sandwiches, salads,soups, omelets and other dishes. Now, studies by Agricultural Research Servicescientists may lead to new ways to help protect raw sprouts from attack by E.coli, Salmonella or other pathogenic microorganisms. These microbes can flourishin the warm, moist indoor environment in which seeds are induced to sprout,according to microbiologist Amy O. Charkowski at Albany, Calif. Seeds purchasedby "sprouters" -- the growers who run the indoor operations that yieldsprouted seeds -- may already be contaminated by microbes harbored in irrigationwater, fertilizer, or bird or mouse droppings, according to Charkowski. She iswith the Food Safety and Health Unit at the ARS Western Regional Research Centerin Albany. Inlaboratory studies with radish, alfalfa, broccoli and mung bean sprouts,Charkowski wants to determine what compounds produced naturally by the sproutssuch as amino acids -- nurture the attacking microbes. She will then determinewhether harmless bacteria might
Sprout Industry Supplier Leading Industry Toward Safer Sprouts SproutIndustry Supplier Leading Industry Toward Safer Sprouts SteveMeyerowitz April 7, 2000 Sproutsare one of the most nutritious foods on earth and researchers are now justbeginning to find all the many health benefits that sprouts can provide.However, in the last couple years the sprout industry has been flogged by thepress because of several outbreaks of Salmonella and E-Coli 0157:H7 in sprouts.These outbreaks have appeared in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan and haveinvolved over 7300 confirmed cases of people who have become ill from eatingcontaminated alfalfa, radish, clover and bean sprouts. Sois the problem with the seed, seed suppliers, or with the sprout growers? Theanswer is - all three. Seed is araw agricultural product that can become contaminated in the field or duringharvest, storage, processing, transport or warehousing of the seed. If the contaminated seed is not properly sanitized before sprouting,there is a chance that pathogens can quickly multiply. Inprinciple, this multiplication process should also be occurring in thehydroponics industry on a variety of
Dangerous Seed On American Market DangerousSeed on American Market SproutNet International Specialty Supply May 23, 2000 Thereis much scarified seed that has made its way to the US market from Australia. Not all seed from Australia is scarified, but we sampled some seed that was notsuitable for sprouting. Some lots you may want to watch out for are 9069,9032, and 9123. They may have numbers that followthem. Accordingto Dr Rob Wick's small experiment (see "Sanitation of Injured AlfalfaSeed", Dr Robert Wick, Nov. 5, 1999 SproutNet), 91.7% or more ofinjured seed is not affected by sanitation. He feels that even a smallpercentage of injured seed poses a threat. Thereare some seed suppliers in the US market who are intentionally selling scarifiedseed because it can be purchased at a fraction of the cost of non-scarifiedseed. Doesscarified seed sprout as well as non-scarified seed? Indeed, possibly evenbetter. The damaged seed coat allows quick and even water penetration ofall seed. Consequently the seed produces a consistent product and becauseall live seed germinates together, a good yield. Thereare some
Cancer Preventive Properties of Varieties of Brassica Oleracea Cancer preventive properties of varieties of Brassica oleracea: a review American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 59, 1166S-1170S, Copyright © 1994 by The American Society for Clinical Nutrition, Inc CW Beecher Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago 60612. Cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and other members of the genus Brassica have been widely regarded as potentially cancer preventative. This view is often based on both experimental testing of crude extracts and epidemiological data. The experimental evidence that provides support for this possibility is reviewed for the commonly consumed varieties of Brassica oleracea. In a majority of cases the biological activities seen intesting crude extracts may be directly related to specific chemicals thathave been reported to be isolated from one of these closely relatedspecies, thus the chemical evidence further supports the data from testingextracts and epidemiology.
Disinfection of Mung Bean Seed with Gaseous Acetic Acid Disinfection of mung bean seed with gaseous acetic acid. J Food Prot 1999 Aug;62(8):953-7 Delaquis PJ, Sholberg PL, Stanich K. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, British Columbia. DELAQUISP@EM.AGR.CA Mung bean seed inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes (3 to 5 log CFU/g) was exposed to gaseous acetic acid in an aluminum fumigation chamber. Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected by enrichment of seeds treated with 242 microl of acetic acid per liter of air for 12 h at 45 degrees C. L. monocytogenes was recovered by enrichment from two of 10 25-g seed samples treated in this manner. Fumigation with gaseous acetic acid was also lethal to indigenous bacteria and fungi on mung bean seed. The treatment did not significantly reduce seed germination rates, and no differences in surface microstructure were observed between treated and untreated seed viewed by scanning electron microscopy.
Seed Viability and Functional Properties of Broccoli Sprouts During Germination and Postharvest Storage As Affected by Irradiation of Seed viability and functional properties of broccoli sprouts during germination and postharvest storage as affected by irradiation of seeds. J Food Sci. 2009 Jun;74(5):C370-4. Waje CK,Jun SY, Lee YK, Moon KD, Choi YH, Kwon JH. Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook Natl. Univ., Daegu, Korea. The viability of broccoli seeds and functional properties, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoid, chlorophyll, and total phenol contents, of broccoli sprouts grown from irradiated seeds were evaluated. The seeds were irradiated using electron beam and gamma ray at doses up to 8 kGy. High germination percentages (>90%) were observed in seeds irradiated at < or =4 kGy, but the yield ratio and sprout length decreased with increased irradiation dose. Irradiation at > or =6 kGy resulted in curling of the sprout roots. Germinated seeds contained higher amounts of nutrients than raw seeds but the nutritional quality of sprouts decreased during postharvest storage. Radiation treatment hampered
Natural Toxins in Sprouted Seeds NATURAL TOXINS IN SPROUTED SEEDS: SEPARATING MYTH FROM REALITY By Warren Peary and William Peavy, Ph.D. Natural toxins in food has become a hot and controversial subject recently. In the last few years, some popular writers have attacked sprouts (particularly alfalfa and legume sprouts) as containing natural toxins. These writers may have heard something about a lathyrogen toxin, saponins, canavanine, and maybe other nasty-sounding toxins, and concluded that the sprouts of legumes are toxic in the raw state and so should not be eaten. These statements are taken out of context. LATHYROGEN TOXIN One of the natural toxins that has been mentioned comes from peas of the genus Lathyrus. It is blamed for causing a disease known as lathyrism. Lathyrism causes paralysis in the legs in susceptible individuals and is believed to be caused by a toxic amino acid. This sounds scary, but it's not, because peas of the genus Lathyrus are NOT edible peas. The toxin is found only in the seeds of certain
Nationwide Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans Associated with Sprouted Alfalfa Seeds in Finland Nationwide Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans Associated with Sprouted Alfalfa Seeds in Finland, 2009. Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 May 12. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2011.01408.x. Rimhanen-Finne R, Niskanen T, Lienemann T, Johansson T, Sjöman M, Korhonen T, Guedes S, Kuronen H, Virtanen MJ, Mäkinen J, Jokinen J, Siitonen A, Kuusi M National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Kuopio, Finland Environmental Health Centre, Lieto, Finland. Abstract Salmonella enterica serotype Bovismorbificans is a rare serotype in Finland. In June 2009, a nationwide outbreak of S. Bovismorbificans infections occurred, and 42 clinical isolates were identified. We conducted a case-control study enrolling 28 cases and 48 matched controls, and found ready-to-eat alfalfa sprouts associated with the infection (odds ratio = 35.2, 95% confidence interval 2.8-435). The sprouts were traced back to a domestic producer, with theseeds
Do Sprouts Need Nutritional Labeling DoSprouts Need Nutritional Labeling? SproutNet September 2,2002 Mike Lalley, of Living Foods, contacted the FDA to find out ifsprouts need to have nutritional labeling. This is the reply he receivedfrom Beatrice Greenberg of the FDA. "This is in reply to your facsimile submitted on August 14, 2002 concerning the labeling of sprouts. You asked if nutrition information has to be provided on the label of packaged raw sprouts, i.e., bean, alfalfa, radish, garlic, clover, onion, etc., that are rinsed with 50 ppm of water and calcium hypochlorite. You also stated that it was your understanding that these products are covered under the voluntary nutrition labeling program. Vegetables that are washed in the manner you described are considered to have received little processing and are subject to the voluntary nutrition labeling program described in 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 101.45. Therefore, packaged raw spouts are not required to provide nutrition information if the label does not include any nutrient content claims, health claims, or other
Seed Source Identified for E Coli Outbreaks Linked to Sprouts Seed source identified for E. coli outbreaks linked to sprouts News RX Health & Medicine Week Page 1052 2005 AUG 8 Investigators have identified a common seed source for temporally distinct Escherichia coli 0157 outbreaks associated with alfalfa sprouts. "Escherichia coli 0157 outbreaks were identified in Minnesota in February 2003 involving seven persons and in Colorado in July 2003 involving 13 persons. Case isolates from the two states had matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Independent case-control studies linked infections in each outbreak with eating alfalfa sprouts that were traced to the same seed distributor," scientists in the United States report. "The Colorado sprouter reportedly complied with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sprout guidance, whereas the Minnesota sprouter did not," said Dayna Devon Ferguson at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and collaborators in the U.S. "These investigations revealed that increased compliance with existing FDA guidance is needed and that additional research is needed to improve the alfalfa seed decontamination